Tag Archives: Kubernetes

VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG) Tanzu CLI Installation – Part 5

In the Previous post, we discussed abut VMWARE TANZU KUBERNETES GRID (TKG) ARCHITECTURE.

In this post (VMWARE TANZU KUBERNETES GRID (TKG) CLI INSTALLATION – PART 5) we are going to discuss how to install and initialize the Tanzu command line interface (CLI) on a
bootstrap machine.  As discussed in one of my previous post about bootstrapping.  Bootstrap machine is server or client machine that you use to deploy management and workload clusters from. Once the Tanzu CLI is installed, we can start deploying Tanzu Kubernetes Grid using the Tanzu CLI to create management cluster on the platform  that you use.  And later The Tanzu CLI then communicates with the management cluster to create and manage workload clusters for Day 2 prospective.

VMware supports Tanzu CLI binaries for Linux, MacOS, and Windows systems, which can be downloaded from VMware Product Download (https://my.vmware.com/en/web/vmware/downloads/#all_products) site. 

Download Tanzu CLI and kubectl

  1. Go to https://my.vmware.com/en/web/vmware/downloads/#all_products  and log in with your My VMware credentials, which must have permission to download binaries.
  2. Go to All Downloads -> Infrastructure & Operations Management -> VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid -> Click Download Product.

3.  Under Download VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid Page -> Select VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid -> and Click GO TO DOWNLOADS.

4. Select the correct VMware Tanzu CLI Version and Platform on which you want to install. (In my case, I am downloading VMware Tanzu CLI for Windows). And Click Download Now.

5. Go to the Kubectl 1.20.5 for VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid 1.3.1 section of the download page. And Select the correct platform and version of Kubectl to install. (In my case, I am downloading kubectl cluster cli v1.20.5 for Windows). And Click Download Now.

6. On the system, where you want to install Tanzu command line interface (CLI) and Kubectl, create a new directory named tanzu.

7. Copy the downloaded binaries to tanzu folder and Unpack them using
tar -xvf command.

After you unpack the binaries, you will see a cli folder with multiple
subfolders and files.

8. Unzip the kubectl binary file from kubectl-windows-v1.20.5-vmware.1.exe.gz

Install the Tanzu CLI

Now we are ready to Install the Tanzu CLI.  I am going to install this on Windows Server, If you need to install on Linux or MacOS. Please refer the VMware document how to install on Linux / MacOS.

  1. Create a new folder under Program Files\Tanzu.
  2. copy the core\v1.3.0\tanzu-corewindows_
    amd64.exe file from CLI folder into the new Program Files\tanzu folder.

3.  Just to simplify, rename the tanzu-core-windows_amd64.exe to tanzu.exe.

4. Make sure you have Full Control permission on tanzu folder.

5. Now set Environment Variables for Tanzu CLI.

6. run tanzu version to check that the correct version of the CLI is properly installed.

7. After we have installed the tanzu core executable, must install the CLI plugins related to Tanzu Kubernetes cluster management and feature operations.

8. Navigate to the tanzu folder that contains the cli folder and Run the below command from the tanzu directory to install all the plugins.

  • tanzu plugin install –local cli all
  • tanzu plugin list

you can see list of all installed plugins as showing below.

Now let’s install kubectl compatible with the Tanzu CLI.

  1. Navigate to the folder where we have downloaded for kubectl executable.
  2. Just to simplify, rename the kubectl-windows-v1.20.5-vmware.1.exe to kubectl.exe.
  3. Run the below command to check the installed kubectl version
  • kubectl version

With the Tanzu CLI installed, we are ready to set up and use bootstrap machine to deploy Kubernetes clusters to on-premises infrastructure (vSphere) or running on Public Cloud (Amazon EC2 and Microsoft Azure).

That’s all about Installing Tanzu CLI and kubectl, In the next post will discuss about how to deploy management clusters (VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG) Deploy Management Cluster – Part 6). Stay tuned for next post.

Hope this will be informative. Happy learning and happy sharing ? 

VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG) Architecture – Part 4

In the last Part VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG) Bootstrap– PART3  discussed about Bootstrapping for TKG cluster. 

In this Part 4 will be discussing about TKG Architecture and then will jump on how to install and initialize the Tanzu command line interface (CLI) on a bootstrap machine.

In nutshell, VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG) provides customers with a consistent Kubernetes environments that is ready for end-user workloads and ecosystem integrations. Customer have option to deploy Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG) across software-defined datacenters (SDDC) On Premises and public cloud environments, including vSphere, Microsoft Azure, and Amazon EC2.

Tanzu Kubernetes Grid Architecture

Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG) delivers a Kubernetes platform that is engineered and supported by VMware, so that you do not have to
build your Kubernetes environment by yourself.

In addition to Kubernetes binaries that are tested, signed, and supported by VMware, Tanzu Kubernetes Grid provides the services such as networking, authentication, ingress control, and logging that a production Kubernetes environment requires. 

Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG) is an implementation of several open-source projects tested and supported by VMware to provide automated provisioning and lifecycle management of Kubernetes clusters.

These include:

  • Declarative API 
  • Networking with Antrea and Calico
  • Ingress Control with Contour
  • Log Forwarding with Fluentbit
  • Harbor Registry
  • User Authentication with Pinniped
  • Load Balancing with VMware NSX Advanced LB (AVI Networks)
  • Backup and Restore with Velero

TKG Architecture design and deployment includes –

  1. Management Cluster 
  2. Tanzu Kubernetes (Workload) Cluster 
  3. Bootstrap Machine running Tanzu CLI

Management Cluster

Management cluster is the first element that you design and deploy when you create a Tanzu Kubernetes Grid instance. The management cluster performs the role of the primary management and operational center for the Tanzu Kubernetes Grid instance. This is
where Cluster API runs to create the Tanzu Kubernetes clusters in which your application workloads run, and where you configure the shared and in-cluster services that the clusters use.

When you deploy a management cluster, networking with Antrea is automatically enabled in the management cluster. The management cluster is responsible for operating the platform and
managing the lifecycle of Tanzu Kubernetes clusters. 

Tanzu Kubernetes (Workload) Clusters
Once management cluster is ready, we deploy Kubernetes clusters that handle your application workloads, that you manage
through the management cluster. Tanzu Kubernetes clusters can run different versions of Kubernetes, depending on the needs of the applications you run. You can manage the entire
lifecycle of Tanzu Kubernetes clusters by using the Tanzu CLI.

Tanzu Kubernetes clusters implement Antrea for pod-to-pod networking by default.

Bootstrap Machine running Tanzu CLI

The bootstrap machine is the host that you use to deploy
management and workload clusters from, and that keeps the Tanzu and Kubernetes configuration files for your deployments. 

That’s all about TKG architecture, will discuss more about Installation of TKG CLI in VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG) Tanzu CLI Installation – Part 5. Stay tuned for next part.

Hope this will be informative. Happy learning and happy sharing ? 

Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA) Exam Experience Sharing

First of All Happy New Year 2021 every one and have blessed 2021 🙂

Last 3-4 months have been great learning  for Cloud Native. Started my cloud native  journey with VMware Tanzu Portfolio covering –

  • VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG)
  • Tanzu Kubernetes Grid Service (TKGS)
  • VMware Tanzu Mission Control (TMC)
  • VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid Integrated Edition (TKGI)
  • VMware vSphere with kubernetes
  • VMware Enterprise PKS (Pivotal Container Service)

While going through all the above, Where all the discussion starts and end with cloud native aka Kubernetes (K8s), this attract me to Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA) exam. 

The Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA) created by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF), in collaboration with The Linux Foundation.

Started exploring the best course for this, which covers all the topics in CKA exam and also provide Labs to practice, as this is complete hands on exam and need hell lot of practice to clear this exam.

Came across these 2 super awesome courses developed by Mumshad Mannambeth on Udemy.

1. Kubernetes for the Absolute Beginners – Hands-on

2. Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA) with Practice Tests (Kubernetes v1.19)

My focus was more on Practice Tests with these courses, and frankly speaking i did 4-5 times all the labs to be confident enough before booked my exam. Not easy to complete 4-5 times all the labs, need many days to complete and i know how many sleepless night i had to complete these labs.

Exam fee is US$ 300. You can find 30-40% discount coupons on this exam fee.

There were total 17 questions with 120 mins to complete. For my experience, I tried all  17 questions, i know few i did wrong 😉 but i tried all to finish. In general, the questions are not too difficult if you practice enough or your fundamentals is clear, but I think it’s still harder and need better time control to complete all 17 questions in 120 minutes (2 Hours).

For the CKA Exam, a score of 66% or above must be earned to pass. And I Scored 75% not bad in first attempt 🙂

Kubectl Cheat Sheet

It’s highly recommended to go through all the commands at least once before the exam, it would help you to become more familiar of some frequent-use command and be easier to find them during the exam. https://kubernetes.io/docs/reference/kubectl/cheatsheet

Best part is that you can access this during the exam to refer and you can copy the YAML format in the exam – https://kubernetes.io/docs/home/  

Results will be emailed to you within 36 hours from the time that the Exam was completed.  If you clear in first attempt is great achievement, if not you’ll have “Free Retake” another free chance to PASS it.

If you have any friend/colleague who has PASS this, do have conversation with him and discuss time management and some insider tips 🙂

I suggest whether you are working on Cloud Native aka Kubernetes (K8s) or not MUST do this, this is upcoming  and good to know or have updated yourself 🙂

Thank you and Hope this will help. Do reach out to me if need any help or wants to discuss further .. Cheers 🙂















VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG) Bootstrap – Part 3

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In the second series VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG) – PART2. I  covered the basic of VMware Tanzu Portfolio, supported platform for Tanzu whether VMware Cloud  (On-Premises or VCPP Cloud) or Public cloud  (AWS or Azure) and supported  kubernetes versions with latest VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid 1.2 release.

Before  deep diving  into Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG) Architecture, Let’s discuss about Bootstrap Environment

The bootstrap environment is typically a VM on which you run the Tanzu Kubernetes Grid CLI or VM from where you plan to deploy the Management or Workload Cluster/s. When you initiate Tanzu Kubernetes Grid instance, it bootstrap on local VM first and then transfer to the cloud infrastructure of your choice whether VMware cloud  (On-Premises or VCPP Cloud) or Public cloud  (AWS or Azure). After bootstrapping the management cluster, This VM can be  used to manage the Tanzu Kubernetes Grid instance.

The TKG CLI is used to initialize cluster, as well as to create, scale, upgrade, and delete Tanzu Kubernetes clusters. Basically Administrator or Developer needs to have TKG CLI to administrator or manage the kubernetes infrastructures or Applications.

When you initialize the TKG cluster, A cluster plan runs within bootstrap VM to provides a set of configurable values for deployment, for example, the number of control plane machines, worker machines, number of vCPUs, amount of memory, and other parameters you want for your TKG cluster. 

TKG Management Cluster

The Management Cluster is the first cluster that you deploy when you create a Tanzu Kubernetes Grid instance. This is Kubernetes cluster that performs the role of the primary management and operational center for the Tanzu Kubernetes Grid instance. This cluster is where Cluster API runs.

TKG Workload Cluster

Once you have deployed Management Cluster, You can initiate the deployment of Tanzu Kubernetes cluster/s from the management cluster by using the Tanzu Kubernetes Grid CLI. These clusters are also called workload clusters. These are clusters where PODs/Containers will run and will host your applications.

A single bootstrap environment can be used to bootstrap as many instances of Tanzu Kubernetes Grid as you want to have for different environments, e.g. Test, dev, Production running in different IaaS Providers – vSphere, AWS or Azure.

That’s all about bootstrap, will discuss more on architecture in VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG) Architecture – Part 4. Stay tuned for next part.

Hope this will be informative. Happy learning and happy sharing ? 

VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG) – PART2

In the first series GETTING STARTED WITH VMWARE TANZU PORTFOLIO – PART1. I tried to cover the basic of VMware Tanzu Portfolio, Basic of Cloud Native and what are the products VMware offers to customers under VMware Tanzu portfolio.

Let me recap again before moving to TKG acrchitecture, VMware provide following products for complete Kubernetes life cycle management (LCM):

  • VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid, informally known as TKG
  • VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid Integrated Edition, informally known as TKGI (Formerly known as Enterprise PKS) – Rebranded after VMware acquisition of Pivotal.
  • VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid Service, informally known as TKGS, This is the native Kubernetes in vsphere 7 (vSphere with Tanzu).
  • VMware Tanzu Mission Control, informally known as TMC.

These are complete Tanzu portfolio, which provides broad range of options and covers variety of use-cases for customers to have single platform to run traditional applications and Cloud Native or Modern Applications.

Tanzu Supported Platform

With Lateset release of VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid 1.2, customer can run on on-premises software defined data center (SDDC), and public cloud environments, including vSphere, Microsoft Azure, and Amazon EC2.

When we say vSphere it can run within your on-premises (Private Cloud) data center or vSphere base VMware certified cloud runs and managed by VMware Partners. To know more about VMware Certified Cloud or VCPP partners pls refer to VMware Certified Service Provider portal – https://www.vmware.com/partners/service-provider.html

Until VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid 1.1, it was only supported on vSphere (either Private cloud or VMware Certified Service Provider Cloud) and AWS. But with the relaese of VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid 1.2, now it also support for deployment on Microsoft Azure Public cloud.

With VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid 1.2 Release, customer can choose to run these  Kubernetes versions:

  • 1.19.1
  • 1.18.8
  • 1.17.11

For more details what’s new in VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid 1.2, Please refer release notes – https://docs.vmware.com/en/VMware-Tanzu-Kubernetes-Grid/1.2/rn/VMware-Tanzu-Kubernetes-Grid-12-Release-Notes.html

Will discuss more on architecture in VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG) Bootstrap – Part 3. Stay tuned for next part.

Hope this will be informative. Please feel free to share if you wish to 🙂 


Getting Started with Vmware Tanzu Portfolio – Part1

Last few months I have been learning about Cloud Native Applications and how VMware Tanzu Portfolio helping thousands of customers around the world to build and run modern application on their existing private cloud running on VMware software defined data center (SDDC). 

Customers are looking for one stop shop to run Traditional Enterprise Apps and Cloud Native Apps on one platform, customer wants to limit CapEx and OpEx  to have single infrastructure which can support to run both modern and traditional applications, and want to focus more on application modernization and business development which helps them to generate more revenue.

This is where VMware Tanzu Portfolio helps to have one infrastructure where customer can run Traditional Enterprise Apps and Cloud Native Apps side by side. Which gives freedom and visibility to software developers and IT operations with the goal of delivering high-quality software that solves business challenges.

How do you build and run cloud native applications?

Whenever we talk or discuss about cloud native application, these are few important terms come into mind, let’s briefly discuss about these terms –

Microservices – Microservices is an architectural approach to developing an application. The microservices approach is the opposite of traditional monolithic software which consists of tightly integrated modules as a single unit. microservices have become popular with companies that need greater agility and scalability for their application.

Microservices characteristics and operations are :

  • A collection of small services where each service implements business capabilities
  • Runs in its own process and communicates via an HTTP API
  • Can be deployed, upgraded, scaled, and restarted independent of other services in the application

Containers – Container is a standard unit of software that packages up code and all its dependencies so the application runs quickly and reliably from one computing environment to another. Containers offer both efficiency and speed compared with standard virtual machines (VMs). Using operating-system-level virtualization, a single OS instance is dynamically divided among one or more isolated containers, each with a unique writable file system and resource quota. The low overhead of creating and destroying containers combined with the high packing density in a single VM makes containers an ideal compute vehicle for deploying individual microservices.

The most popular container is Docker, A Docker container image is a lightweight, standalone, executable package of software that includes everything needed to run an application: code, runtime, system tools, system libraries and settings.

VMware Tanzu Portfolio

The goal of the VMware Tanzu portfolio is to provide a modern application platform, which helps customer to transform business, not just IT. VMware Tanzu can run on vSphere with Tanzu, vSphere, Public cloud and Edge environments. Edge refers to branch offices or remote locations outside of data center.

VMware Tanzu portfolio products provides complete end to end solutions for customers to RUN and MANAGE their cloud native applications.

Under Tanzu RUN, VMware provide following products for complete Kubernetes life cycle management (LCM):

  • VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid
  • VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid Integrated Edition (Formerly known as Enterprise PKS)
  • VMware vSphere with Tanzu

Under Tanzu Manage, VMware provides VMware Tanzu Mission Control, which Provides a centralized management platform for consistently operating and securing your Kubernetes infrastructure and modern applications running across multiple clouds. In nutshell, it provides unified managements for all the Kubernetes infrastructure, whether running on-prem, public cloud or running in multi public clouds environments.

What is Kubernetes and why do we need Kubernetes?

When running containers at scale in production – thousands of containers across your enterprise—things get complex and out of reach for developers or DevOps team to manage them efficiently. In such environments you must have unified and centralized ways to automate the deployment and management of all those containers. This is where we need orchestration engine for container.

Kubernetes, is the industry-standard for container management and provides orchestration engine for container, Kubernetes streamline container orchestration to avoid the complexities of interdependent system architectures. 

VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid is CNCF-certified, enterprise ready Kubernetes runtime solution to streamlines and simplify installation and Day 2 operations of Kubernetes across enterprise. It is tightly integrated with vSphere and can be extended to run with consistency across your public cloud and edge environments.

VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid is a multi cloud Kubernetes distribution that you can run on, VMware vSphere  and Amazon Web Services. TKG are tested, signed, and supported by VMware. VMware TKG Includes signed and supported versions of open-source applications to provide the networking, authentication, ingress control, and logging services that a production Kubernetes environment requires.

For more details pls visit VMware Tanzu documentation site – https://tanzu.vmware.com/ or https://docs.pivotal.io/

Will leave here in this post, In VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG) – PART2 will discuss more on TKG architecture.

Stay tunned, Keep learing and keep sharing 🙂