We discussed Virtual LAN (VLAN), Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN), Virtual Tunnel End Point (VTEP), VXLAN Replication Modes, and NSX Logical Switching in the Network Virtualization with VMware NSX – Part 3. Here in Part 4 will discuss about NSX Routing.
NSX Routing :-
The TCP/IP protocol suite offers different routing protocols that provide a router with methods for building valid routes. The following routing protocols are supported by NSX:
• Open Shortest Path First (OSPF): This protocol is a link-state protocol that uses a link-state routing algorithm. This protocol is an interior routing protocol.
• Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS): This protocol determines the best route for datagrams through a packet switched network.
• Border Gateway Protocol (BGP): This protocol is an exterior gateway protocol that is designed to exchange routing information between autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet.
NSX Logical Router:-
The NSX Edge logical router provides East-West distributed routing with tenant IP address space and data path isolation. Virtual machines or workloads that reside on the same host on different subnets can communicate with one another without having to traverse a traditional routing interface. A logical router can have eight uplink interfaces and up to a thousand internal interfaces.
During the configuration process, NSX Manager deploys the logical router control virtual machine and pushes the logical interface configurations to each host through the control cluster. The logical router control virtual machine is the control plane component of the routing process. The logical router control virtual machine supports the OSPF and BGP protocols.The distributed logical routers run at the kernel module level.
The NSX Controller cluster is responsible for distributing routes learned from the logical router control virtual machine across the hypervisors. Each control node in the cluster takes responsibility for distributing the information for a particular distributed logical router instance. In a deployment where multiple distributed logical router instances are deployed, the load is distributed across the NSX Controller nodes.
The distributed logical router owns the logical interface (LIF). This concept is similar to interfaces on a physical router. But on the distributed router a distributed logical router can have a maximum of 1,000 LIFs. For each segment that the distributed logical router is connected to, the distributed logical router has one ARP table.
When the LIF is connected to a VLAN, the LIF has a pMAC and when the LIF is connected to a VXLAN, the LIF has a vMAC.
NOTE :- You can have only one VXLAN LIF connecting to a logical switch. Only one distributed logical router can be connected to a logical switch.
DLR high availability:- When high availability is enabled, NSX Manager enables the VMware vCenter Server system to deploy another logical control router virtual machine. deploy two logical router control virtual machines and designate one as active and one as passive. If the active logical router control virtual machine fails, the passive logical router control virtual machine takes 15 seconds to take over. Because the control virtual machine is not in the data plane, data plane traffic is not affected.Configuring and Deploying an NSX Distributed Router:-
1. Connect vCenter Server through vSphere Web Client –> Home –> Inventories –> Networking & Security.
2. In the left navigation pane, select NSX Edges.3. In the center pane, click the green plus sign (+) to open the New NSX Edge dialog box.4. From the New NSX Edge dialog box. On the Name and description page, click the Logical (Distributed) Router button. Enter the Name of the Distributed Router in the Name text box, Enter Hostname, Description for DLR and Tenant Name and click Next.
5. On the Settings page, enter Password for DLR and Enable SSH access for DLR. If you want DLR in High Availability mode check the Enable High Availability box. And Click NEXT.Note:- Password must be at least 12 Characters log.6. On the Configure Deployment page, verify that you have selected required Datacenter.7. Under NSX Edge Appliances, click the green plus sign (+) to open the Add NSX Edge Appliance dialog box. Select the required Cluster/Resource Pool, Datastore, Host and Folder to deploy DLR. (If you have checked High Availability option 2 Distributed Router will be deployed). And Click OK to close the Add NSX Edge Appliance dialog box.8. Verify the NSX Edge Appliances settings and Click Next.9. On the Configure interfaces page, click the Connected To –> Select link under Management Interface Configuration and select the required Port Group Under Distributed Portgroup. And click OK.
10. Under Configure Interfaces of this NSX Edge, click the green plus sign (+) to open the Add Interface dialog box.Note :- As discussed in Part -3 we are configuring DLR with below requirement. So we need to Add 4 Interfaces).11. In The Add Interface dialog box, Enter the name of Interface, Select Type, Click Select Link for Connected To: and choose the desired Logical Switch and OK.12. Now Click the green plus sign (+) under Configure Subnets to Add subnet for the Interface. In the Add Subnet box Click the green plus sign (+) to add IP Address and Subnet Mask and click OK.13. Once Subnets has been added click Ok to complete Add Interface.14. Repeat the steps 11-13 to Add and Configure Interfaces for other 3 (WEB, APP and Database).
16. On the Ready to complete page, review the configuration and click Finish to start deploying the Logical (Distributed) Router.17. It will take some to complete the deployment of Logical (Distributed) Router.18. Verify that the Distributed Router entry has a type of Logical Router. Double-click the Distributed Router entry to manage that object. Click the Manage tab –> Settings –> Interfaces and see Status of all 4 Interfaces are green.
20. Now after deploying the DLR with all 4 interfaces. You can Test Connectivity using Ping command between all the VMs.
In the Next Part (Network Virtualization with VMware NSX – Part 5) will discuss Configure and Deploy an NSX Edge Gateway, Configure Routes on the NSX Edge Gateway and on the Distributed Router.
Other NSX Parts:-
Please share if useful …..Thank You